Geography of Egypt

Egypt is a country in the North East of Africa that covers a territory of 1 millions square kilometres and his climate is said to be semi-desertic. The only part of Egypt that has always been good for human settlements is along the Nile river. Beside this small band of fertile ground, the Delta in the North and some sporadic oasis in the desert, the entire territory of Egypt is covered by desert: Libyan desert (western desert) – Arabic desert (eastern desert) in the east – The Sinaï (located in North-east of Egypt).  Like every well in the world where we find desert (see Mongolia and Morocco) every human settlement is strongly linked to the landscapes and capacity of finding enough water to survive. 

Many centuries ago, we used to cut Egypt territory in 2 pars. The High Egypt (which was in fact the actual south part) and and Low Egypt (which is the North actual part) This conception of High and Low Egypt was linked to the direction where the water of Nile River were going. These day, we also talk about the Middle Egypt, refering to the part where is the city Assiut.

Concerning the physionomy of the country, the highest points of Egypt Sinaï Mountain (2285m) and Gebel Chayeb (2880m). As everybody know, the biggest river of Egypt (as well as the entire world) is Nile who runs for 6671 km. The principals cities of Egypt are Cairo (+25 millions inhabitants), Alexandria (6 millions inhabitants), Port Saïd (470 000 inhabitants) and Aswan (240 000 inhabitants).

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Geology of Egypt

Almost the entire Egyptian population is concentrated on the fertile banks of the Nile Valley.


South of Egypt: the Nile is surrounded by mountains framing a small agricultural plain.


North of Egypt: the landscape becomes flatter and the valley widens to measure around 30 km.


West of the Nile: To the west of the Nile, one finds the eastern desert, also called Arabian Desert. It looks like an arid plateau, limited by another chain of mountains with peaks over 2,000 m, while stretching nearly 800 km. To the west of the Nile, the Western Desert, also called Lybique encompasses two thirds of the land of Egypt. In other words, Egypt lies in the Sahara region. Despite extreme temperatures, it contains a rich fauna. A particular physiology sculpted over the years, allow the water to surface and thus create the beautiful oases of Egypt.

Cairo, the egyptian capial serves as a geographic demarcation standing roughly where the river forms a delta of 200 km wide. This landscape offers many realities evoking a wide range of green that is based to the Mediterranean. As we may imagine, it is in the Nile Delta that agriculture is more diversified and intensive. The part located in the north of Cairo is called Lower Egypt and the southern part, Upper Egypt.


East of Egypt: East had completely Egypt, found the Suez Canal, allowing direct access to the Indian Ocean for ships from the Mediterranean and vice versa.

It is east of the Suez Canal found the triangular Sinai Peninsula. The geological extension of the Eastern Desert south has high mass, including Mount Sinai and St. Catherine and the beautiful northern coastal desert plain and lagoons.